Microbial, pH and Chlorine Assessment of the Swimming Pools Water in Hamadan City

Rasool Yousefi-Mashouf, Mohammad Reza Samarghandi, Alireza Rajabinegad, Maryam Ahmadi, Faezeh Nazarieh


Background: Many studies have been showed that certain illnesses including fungi and bacterial infections can be transmitted to human by contaminated swimming pools water. The main objective of the present study was to detect microbial (bacterial and fungi) and chemical (pH and chlorine levels) pollutions of the all swimming pools water in Hamadan city, Iran.

Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study and carried out on 6 swimming pools (including four indoor and two outdoor swimming pools) in summer of 1999 in Hamadan, the west of Iran. The sampling was done twice per week randomly in the evening and 48 samples were collected. Water samples were collected in wide-mouth bottles by plunging the bottle downward from two areas of swimming pools (deep and semi-deep area). The samples were sent to Microbiology Wastewater laboratory to detection of total and fecal coliforms and the levels of pH and chlorine. Another sample was also sent to Bacteriology and Mycology laboratories simultaneously to isolation of pathogenic organisms. Blood agar and EMB agar were used to detection of bacterial pathogens and Mycosil agar to detection of fungi pathogens. Data was gathered through a questionnaire and analyzed using EPI6 software.

Results: The results showed that opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria contaminated the all swimming pools water, but pathogenic fungi were not detected. Out of 48 samples, 40 samples (83.3%) were contaminated by opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria. In general, indoor swimming pools showed more bacterial contamination. Of 6 swimming pools, Shohada swimming pool with 9 cases contamination was most polluted swimming pool and Alvand swimming pool with 4 cases contamination was lowest polluted swimming pool. Kossar swimming pool also showed the most pollution in terms of total coliforms with 1079.5 MPN/100 ml, and Bassige swimming pool had lowest pollution with 20.6 MPNI1 00 ml. The pH of all swimming pools was between 6 to 8 and the level of chlorine was between 0.3 - 0.46 ppm.

Conclusion: Considering the high microbial pollution in the most of swimming pools water studied in terms of bacterial pathogens and total coliforms, we suggested that health authorities should control the water of swimming pools continuously and the use of circulation apparatus for all swimming pools is also recommended.  Reproductive age is recommended.


Chlorine Assessment ; Microbial Pollution ; Swimming Pools

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