Photogrammetric Analysis of Upper Cross Syndrome among Teachers and the Effects of National Academy of Sports Medicine Exercises with Ergonomic Intervention on the Syndrome

Razieh Karimian, Nader Rahnama, Gholamali Ghasemi, Shahram Lenjannejadian


Background: Hyperkyphosis is often accompanied by forward head and shoulder postures. Together, these three disorders are called “Upper Cross Syndrome (UCS)”. We aimed to perform a photogrammetric analysis of UCS among teachers and to determine the effects of National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM) exercises with ergonomic training interventions on the syndrome.

Study design: A semi-experimental study.

Methods: Photogrammetric analysis was performed using the UCS software among teachers in order to determine the angles of forward head, rounded shoulders, and hyperkyphosis. Twenty-three teachers were selected purposefully and enrolled in Fasa City in 2018. They were randomly divided into experimental (n=12) and control (n=11) groups. Experimental group attended 12 wk of NASM exercises with ergonomic intervention but the control group did not participate in any regular exercise. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and differential independent t-test (P<0.05).

Results: The results indicated a significant decrease in forward head (P=0.001), shoulder angles (P=0.000) and hyperkyphosis (P=0.003). The applied intervention had a 90% positive effect in reducing the forward head angle, an 88% positive effect in reducing the rounded shoulder angle and a 90% positive effect in reducing the kyphosis angle. However, the results for the control group did not show a significant difference for forward head, rounded shoulders, and hyperkyphosis angles.

Conclusion: The UCS software application can be used as an accurate instrument for measuring the extent of the UCS. Moreover, using NASM exercises can lead to a reduction in the UCS among teachers.


UCS software; Forward head; Rounded shoulder; Hyperkyphosis

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